Kigali Amendment bolsters China’s efforts to protect ozone layer

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The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer formally came into force in China on Sept 15.

China joined the Montreal Protocol in 1991 to phase out the production and usage of ozone-depleting chemicals. Thanks to the efforts of signatories to the protocol and the international community, the world has successfully eliminated more than 90 percent of ozone-depleting substances.

The Kigali Amendment has significant additional benefits for the climate and aims to strengthen controls on non-carbon dioxide potent greenhouse gases such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by cutting the projected production and consumption of HFCs by at least 80 percent over the next 30 years.

According to the 2018 Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion published by the World Meteorological Organisation and the United Nations Environment Programme, fulfilling the regulatory requirements of the amendment could reduce HFC emissions by 5.6 to 5.7 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent each year, avoiding a global average temperature rise of up to 0.4 Celsius.

HFC substances are powerful man-made greenhouse gases used widely in the refrigeration industry, and their global warming potential (GWP) is tens of thousands of times that of CO2. China is the world’s largest producer of HFCs, accounting for approximately 70 percent of global production.

In December 2018, the United Nations Development Programme obtained approval and funding from the 82nd meeting of the Executive Committee of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol to carry out the Hisense HFC-245a Reduction Demonstration Project in China.

Through the transformation of foaming technology and processes in the household refrigerator production line, the Hisense HFC-245fa Reduction Demonstration Project will reduce the consumption of HFC-245fa by a total of 251.85 metric tons, which is equivalent to a reduction of 256,570 tons of CO2 emissions from the production line each year.

During this period, the annual electricity consumption of products produced with alternative technologies was reduced by 6.57 million kilowatt-hours, cutting CO2 emissions by approximately 5,847.3 tons.

The project has now been verified for acceptance and will meet its goals as scheduled later this year.

The project has also circulated non-HFC foaming technology and processes in China’s household, industrial and commercial refrigeration industries, and has accumulated experience in technology conversion to replace HFCs, thereby reducing HFC-245fa industrial consumption.

Refrigeration companies used new technologies to meet the requirements of the Kigali Amendment, increasing cold chain efficiency, reducing food waste and ensuring vaccine safety — in addition to other significant global environmental benefits.

The amendment regulates 18 HFCs and identifies the GWP of each substance. It also sets out separate reduction timetables for developing and developed countries. The first group of developing countries, which includes China, must halt the production and use of HFCs for controlled purposes at the baseline level from 2024 onwards. The production and use of HFCs should not exceed 90 percent of the baseline in 2029, 70 percent in 2035, 50 percent in 2040, and 20 percent in 2045.

Going forward, HFC trade with countries not party to the amendment will be prohibited under the agreement from Jan 1, 2033, and China will be required to submit annual reports on the import, production and export of HFCs from each production facility, as well as data on HFC-23 emissions.

For more information on the Kigali Amendment please visit:

• Ozone Secretariat website:
• United Nations Environment Programme OzonAction:
• China Ozone Layer Protection Action website: